1. No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2001): This policy mandated standardized testing in schools and tied federal funding to student performance. It aimed to close the achievement gap and hold schools accountable for student outcomes.
2. Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010): The CCSS initiative sought to establish consistent educational standards across states. It outlined what students should know in English language arts and math at each grade level.
3. Race to the Top (2009): This competitive grant program promoted educational reform by awarding funds to states with innovative education policies and practices, such as adopting NCLB waivers and implementing teacher evaluations tied to student performance.
4. Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA, 2015): ESSA replaced NCLB and allowed states more flexibility in measuring student performance. It gave states the authority to design their own accountability systems and reduce the emphasis on standardized testing.
5. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 1975): IDEA provides federal funding to support the education of students with disabilities. It ensures that eligible children receive special education services to meet their individual needs.
6. Title IX (1972): Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in education, including athletics, and requires equal opportunities for both genders. It has significantly increased female participation in sports and educational opportunities.
7. No Excuses Charter Schools (1990s): The no excuses movement promoted the establishment of charter schools that emphasize high academic expectations, longer school days, and strict disciplinary policies. These schools aimed to address achievement gaps in low-income communities.
8. School-to-Prison Pipeline Awareness (2000s): Advocacy to address the school-to-prison pipeline aims to reform disciplinary policies that disproportionately push students, especially African American and Latino students, into the juvenile justice system.
9. Pell Grant Expansion (1972, various expansions): The Pell Grant program provides need-based financial aid to low-income college students. Its expansion has helped increase access to higher education for underprivileged students.
10. Early Childhood Education Investments (1960s – present): Investments in early childhood education, such as Head Start, state-funded pre-K programs, and universal preschool initiatives, have aimed to provide equal educational opportunities from an early age, particularly for disadvantaged children.